Your guide to philosophy
At its most basic level, philosophy is the study of wisdom. In fact, the word itself derives from the Greek word for wisdom. However, it is not the study of all things, despite it having this connotation some time ago. Modern philosophy is now regarded as the pursuit of answers to the most fundamental human questions. In this regard, of course, it is often compared to religion. Typically, philosophers will pose questions on subjects like existence, values, the mind, will and language - among others – which they then attempt to answer. Some philosophers specialise in critical questioning, whereas others focus on rational argument. Others still develop their ideas through group discussions. Various branches of philosophy also exist, such as metaphysics, ethics, political philosophy and logic, to name but a few.
How can philosophy help us?
Anyone who wants to answer some of the deepest questions that are posed by philosophy should read the great works of philosophers in order to gain a better understanding. You may not agree with the philosopher's point of view, but it certainly helps to promote your own thoughts. After all, in every age philosophers have sought to build on the work of their forbears either to repudiate earlier held ideas or to reinforce them. Some aspects of philosophy have direct applications, too. The computer pioneer, Alan Turing, was also a philosopher who imagined thinking machines, something we all take for granted nowadays.
Where did philosophy begin?
Although western philosophy began in ancient Greece with famous names such as Aristotle, Plato and Socrates among the best-known, there are separate philosophic traditions from elsewhere. Branches of philosophy developed in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, for example. Early forms also sprang up in India, notably among the early proponents of Buddhism and Jainism. In addition, there are eastern traditions which grew up in China, Korea and Japan. Increasingly, there are studies into the philosophies of native Americans these days, too, such as those associated with the people of the Aztec empire.
Can philosophy replace religion?
In many situations, religions have used philosophic arguments to make their case. This is certainly the case in the Christian religion where the knowledge of Greek philosophers has, in certain respects, been incorporated into some Christian explanations of the world. The same is true, to some extent or other, in many of the other great world religions. As such, philosophy should be seen as a part of religion rather than being a distinct entity that will one day replace it entirely.
Why does philosophy remain important?
People have been asking themselves big questions about their existence since they first gathered around a fireside and wondered at the stars. Unless and until humans work out the answers to all of nature, it is highly likely that philosophy will remain a useful tool for coming up with answers to such questions in the absence of scientifically provable truths. After all, scientific methodologies are, themselves, built upon philosophical principles.